Connecting Fingerprint Patterns to Blood Groups and Diseases

How Many Fingerprint Patterns Are There?

Fingerprints are the unique patterns of ridges and valleys that form on the tips of our fingers. They are so unique that no two people share the same ones, not even identical twins.

They are one of the most reliable forms of evidence used in crime scenes. They are also incredibly durable, as they can resist damage from most sources.


Besides being extremely unique, our fingerprints are relatively permanent and stable. They are also a very good method of identification since no two people have the same fingerprints (except identical twins). Fingerprint identification is based on the arrangement and pattern of minutiae in a print, and the shape, size and number of these features make each individual’s prints different from anyone else’s.

There are a variety of patterns in the fingerprint, and one of them is a simple arch, or tented arch. These are shaped by ridgelines that stream into the fingerprint from one side, then clear up in the middle and eventually stream out the other way. Other common patterns include spiral whorls, concentric whorls, and elongated whorls.

In a study conducted by Umana et al, the researchers looked at the distribution of unique finger impression patterns among 100 type 2 diabetic patients and compared them to 126 controls. They found that there was a significant correlation between the blood group and the distribution of arches, loops, and whorls in the fingerprint. These findings suggest that it may be possible to predict an individual’s blood group through the fingerprint. The study also suggests that it may be possible to identify diseases that develop with age, such as hypertension and diabetes, by analyzing the fingerprint patterns.


The ridges in a fingerprint are organized into patterns, loops, whorls, and arches. Each pattern has different characteristics, which are determined by the pressure and strain exerted during fetal development. These features are called dermatoglyphics, and they are the basis of current fingerprint identification systems.

Loops are characterized by ridgelines that stream into the print from one side, curve around to form a loop and then back to their starting point. This type of pattern is more common than arches and whorls. There are two sorts of arch patterns, plain arches and tented arches. A plain arch is a straight upstanding edge in the center of a straightforward arch pattern, while a tented arch has a more circular shape and may also flee from the thumb.

Investigations done on dermatoglyphics and blood group of individuals propose that a person’s sex and blood gathering can be determined through his or her fingerprints. The results demonstrate that loops are the most typical finger impression pattern in guys and females and are most common in blood groups A and O. On the other hand, whorls and arches are less regular and more frequently found in B blood groups.


A whorl is an arrangement of petals, sepals, stamens, and gynoecium in a flower. A whorl can be monoclamydeous, meaning it has a single calyx and corolla, or diclamydeous, which means it has two different whorls. Whorls may also be elongated or imploding.

There are four kinds of whorl patterns: plain, central pocket loop, double, and composite. The accidental whorl is any pattern that doesn’t fit into any of the above characterizations.

Recently, a study done by Joshi et al., uncovered that there was an association between dissemination of fingerprint (dermatoglyphic) designs and blood gathering of individuals. They scanned palmar prints of 350 type 2 diabetic patients of age 30-60 years with a control gathering and discovered that loops and whorl curve were more regular in patients with O positive blood group. They additionally found that ulnar loop and tented arch were more prominent in diabetic patients.

The underlying stage in unique fingerprint verification depends on minutiae coordinating. Micro details, like ridge closure and ridge bifurcation, are utilized as the fundamental distinctive marks for identification. These minutiae are gotten through picture handling calculations on a fingerprint. They are then utilized to build up a feature vector which is utilized for fingerprint learning by unsupervised preparing models.

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